I am going to show you how to build a simple stone house, like the ones in my town here, with these four materials. You will need lots of plain cobblestone, wooden stairs of whatever type you like (I've used oak), glass pane, and a door of your choosing. It will probably take several stacks of stone and stairs to do any of these houses. I'm going to show you a large house I built.
Start out with a flat building space
Lay out a square on the ground, leaving a space for which way you would like the door to face. You can place the door anywhere you want, but I tend to put it in the middle or a few blocks away from the corner, as shown.
Start to build your walls up, leaving a two-high opening for the door, and if you use 4 high walls, two-high openings for your windows. In smaller houses, you might use three-high walls and one-high windows.
Finish completing the walls to the same height. Now, have your stairs ready, and more stone, as we are going to begin to make the roof.
The thing about using stairs is trying to keep what you see happening in the above picture from happening. If you are too far to one side, the stair you are trying to place will come out as a corner. You will need to be more 'head on' and aiming towards the bottom of the last stair, to place them properly.
As you move farther up the roof, you will place more stones into the side wall to meet the height. You can leave a couple of gaps in the side wall to add more windows later, and it will bring more light into the room.
In some houses like this, I will choose a place to make a second story, and build stairs up to it. The second story will then be an attic room.
Continuing to build up the roof
Make sure to place lots of torches inside the bigger houses, to keep monsters from spawning. Where there is no light there can be spider!
On this house I stopped the roof at this point and finished off with polished andesite. You can change this up and make your houses all a little different, or all the same.
Good luck building your town!